Archives, Historical documents, Historical novel, Historical research, Library, Research, Research Tip, Sailing - daily life, Writers

Librarian tricks to find material on the daily life of a sailor in the 18th century

Sail was still the predominant means of propulsion until the late 1800s and the advent of steam engines and early Vancouver harbour scenes are resplendent with sailboats

I’ve been trying to pin down some details – gritty stories and actual day-in-the-life specifics of a young seaman working on a sailboat in the late 1800s – what they ate, what work they did, where they slept, what they did in the lulls and anything about pets or children onboard.

But I’d been having trouble finding much that was useful. I did keyword searches on the Vancouver Public Library (VPL) using the terms sailing and sailboat and history and “daily life” and came up with a lot of current information about how to sail, where to sail, and contemporary sailboats in general with a bit of historical information thrown in about the heyday of sailing and the advent of steamships in the late 1800s, but still not finding quite what I was looking for.

When you’re doing historical research in particular you may need to think about some older and even antiquated terms for the activity or concept you’re searching for, though I had a similar challenge trying to come up with just the right search term when carrying out research on a (current) aspect of environmental science as well.

Finding the right term is like finding the right key to the lock and is sometimes the first step in finding useful material. Try turning phrases around in your head us, brainstorming different terminology for your subject, and trying this keyword-to subject-heading research in order to come up with the right term that will bring you success.

Before Google and keywords changed the world of online searching in the late 1990s libraries catalogued material using a thesaurus to ensure that all librarians were using consistent terms for classifying books and related material in different formats.

This meant that when terminology migrated (from ecology to envirormentalism for example) related material would still fall under the same classification heading and researchers wouldn’t have to look up multiple terms for the same thing.

Subject headings originate in the classification thesaurus used by libraries (usually Dewey or Library of Congress) and follow a rigid format as you’ll see from my research example, below.

But now, when you’re carrying out research, you can use a combination of keyword searching and the more traditional subject classification searching to pinpoint more specific or obscure information. The subject classification will encompass books and other resources that use terms you might not think of.

For example in my research on the daily life and conditions of sailors in the 19th century I did the following keyword searches.

sailing

and

sailing history

I then chose a book from my results and scrolled down to find the library subject headings under which it was classified. On the Vancouver Public Library site, subject headings appear on the far right, a little down from the book title, and are hyperlinked.

Using the keyword “Sailing” gave the Subject heading of “Sailing”

Using the keywords “Sailing history” gave the Subject heading of “Sailing ships pictorial works”

So I clicked on “Sailing ships pictorial works” to see what other books have been put into that classification, but they were mostly about yaching and racing, neither of which I was interested in.

So I tried another tack (pardon the pun)!

Using the keywords “sailing daily life” – gave me no results

and

Using the keyword “sailors – pictorial works” brought up books with photos of sailors, a few novels, and some analysis of gender issues among sailors.

Finally I remembered the word ‘seafaring” and once I entered that term I hit paydirt because suddenly there was a plethora of books on the daily life of a sailor aboard a sailing ship in the 1800s, from the work they carried out in stormy weather, in port, and while in the calm waters, the doldrums of southern South America, near the Magellan Strait, to the fo’cs’le where they lived and slept, to the food they ate.

So if you aren’t finding the material you need, try thos little librarian trick of starting with keywords and then looking at subject headings of books that come up in the results that yield other sources on the subject you’re looking for.

Of course you can always ask a librarian for help. They will probe you for specifics and relevant terminology in this same way as I’ve just explained, but it’s always heavenly to have someone else to work on it with.

Don’t resort to being a mere mortal and thinking you can do everything yourself because it will save you a lot of time and frustration to use the professionals who know these things and more, so well.

All hands on deck! ūüôā

Archives, Copyright, Historical documents, Historical research, Library, Photos, Preservation, Research, Writers

Historical Photo research in archives

Many archives are now working to digitize collections of their photos to make access easier for researchers to do preliminary research from their home or office, and to minimize the handling of originals.

To track down digital images, start your research in the appropriate archive for your location or subject (municipal/provincial/federal OR cultural/industrial/artistic), and see if they have a photo database you can search. 

Every database will be slightly different but generally, you can enter date parameters, location, and  photographer information, plus a subject you think will be appropriate to carry out your search.

But not all of these databases are user-friendly so write or phone the archives and ask for step-by-step instuctions or help in using them.

Don’t feel embarrassed or shy about asking for help.

Archivists know that their databases can be challenging to use and are usually more than willing to help you navigate and find something you’re looking for.¬†

They want you to succeed! 

Bear in mind that the images you see may only be in a thumb-nail version, or they may be bigger, but regardless, your use of them will generally be limited to research purposes only unless and until you’ve made arrangements with the archives that holds the copyright to that photo.

Considerations of fair use, copyright, and costs for various kinds of use including replication in books or used for a commercial purpose such as a poster, t-shirt, mug, or marketing material. 

Archives, Audio archives, England, Great Britain, Historical documents, Historical research, Library, Music, Oral history, Research, Scotland

Children’s games and songs

Another interesting collection within the British library’s sound archive are recordings of childrens’ games and songs made by Iona Opie and her husband Peter between 1969 and 1983, the Opie collection.

The Opie’s dedicated their working lives to the documentation of children’s play, folklore, language and literature.

They also published several influential works, most notably The Lore and Language of Schoolchildren (1959).

Recordings are searchable by British county using an alphabetical drop-down menu, or by the name of the interviewer or interviewee.

 

 

Archives, Audio archives, England, Historical documents, Historical research, Library, Music, Oral history, Paintings, Research, Sound effects, Street sounds, Theatre, Visual Art, Writers

British library sound archive

brown and black gramophone
Photo by Skitterphoto on Pexels.com

While researching the specifics of early audio recordings for a short story I wrote a few months ago, I came across the Vernadsky library’s collection of sound archives in Kiev and it made me think of this different format of documents that – to a music lover and aurally-focused person such as myself – opens up a whole new world of fascinating historical materials.¬†

So I started digging around for other similar archival repositories of sound and found  the British Library sound archive in London.

It’s got one of the biggest¬†collections of recorded sound in the world and includes¬†music, spoken word, and ambient recordings as far back as 1905, mostly on metal cylinders.¬†

A digitizing project began in the 1990s, allowing much of the collection to now be electronically accessible.

The British Library sound archive’s collection of six million recordings come from BBC¬†radio broadcasts and privately made recordings . They include first hand accounts of Holocaust survivors and of WW I vets held in German prisoner-of-war camps, soundscapes of street scenes including open markets from the Victorian era, the sound of a sail being hoisted on its mast on an early sailing ship, recordings of early folk and opera singing, writers – including an interview with Leo Tolstoy and other noteworthy writers – bird calls and wildlife recordings from many parts of the world, and UK dialects.¬†

In a nutshell – here are the classifications of different recordings available. I’ll delve into these more in the weeks to come.¬†

Classical music

Drama and literature 

Oral history

Popular music and jazz 

Radio recordings 

Spoken language and dialects 

Wildlife and other nature sounds 

World and traditional music

It makes me think of all the amazing ways these recordings could be used Рin art and theatre projects to help set a scene. In academic investigations comparing the predominant sounds of yesteryear to those we hear today. And to hear Рperhaps for the first time for contemporary audiences Рthe sound of birds and animals that have become extinct. 

Many of these archival clips and recordings are available online to the public and some can be imbedded into various kinds of documents, but there are others that are restricted to use by students and faculty of British universities that have subscribed to its collection. However Рif you are in London Рand go into the reading room, you can listen to almost anything in the collection. 

More in the coming weeks on use of this collection, restrictions, and a selection of recordings.

 

Archives, Audio archives, Historical documents, Historical research, Historiography, Jewish archival resources, Klezmer, Library, Research, Ukraine, USSR, Writers

Jewish folk music from 1908 on wax cylinders in a unique phono-archive in Kiev

In my last post I mentioned a phonographic archive located in the Manuscript Institute of the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine.

Vernadsky National Library of the Ukraine in Kiev
Vernadsky National Library of the Ukraine

The library holds one of the largest collections of phonographic recordings of Jewish musical folklore in the world – including Jewish synagogue singing –¬† on more than 1000 wax cylinders.

Before I worked in an archives I remembered¬† hearing news-stories about things being discovered in different archival repositories and I couldn’t understand – why didn’t they know what was in their collection?

But now that I understand better how many unique items are housed in archives, I see that not everything can be added to a searchable list.

Not to mention the political restrictions that can make archival materials unavailable and even subject to destruction.

In January 1949 the Soviet government confiscated the entire archival collection of the Institute of Jewish Culture and arrested almost all of its employees including Moishe Beregovski who I wrote about last week and about whom I fictionalized a story called Pale Shadow*.

After the break-up of the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) in the early 1990s, the Vernadsky collection of wax cylinder recordings became publicly available and researchers have been going through them ever since – a veritable renaissance.

The collection includes music collected by several generations of cultural researchers who gathered material from as early as 1908 out of Belarus where there was a large Jewish diaspora as well as a plethora of traditional religious centres.

A huge project to re-recording the collection was carried out between 1996 and 1999, from which a¬† CD was produced, “Treasures of Jewish Culture in Ukraine”, in 1997.


*I entered Pale Shadow into a story contest that the magazine Prairie Fire ran so don’t want to jeopardize my entry by posting it here yet.

Archives, British Columbia history, Canada history, Chinese Canadian history, Historical documents, Historical photos, Historical research, Library, Photos, Vancouver history, Writers

Photo research

Red Cross booth 1918
Red Cross booth at a war-time carnival in Vancouver. Image by James Crookall, circa 1918. Courtesy of the City of Vancouver Archives (photo 260-1048)

 

Last week I wrote about the use and value of using historical photos for research.

Today I’ll give you a few tips on how to track down historical photos in archives and libraries and some of the challenges of historical photographic research

Keep in mind that the kinds of images you’ll find within any given repository will reflect the mandate of that archive – be it one holding records pertaining to Japanese Canadians or one with a local mandate.¬† See Archival Research – Where to start.

Because many smaller archives were started by passionate local historians, there are many idiosyncratic cataloguing systems and ways in which photos have been organized. Though there is a move toward standardization, it’s always a good idea to check with the reference¬†archivist about the most efficient way to track down what you’re looking for.

For larger archives there has been a move to digitize many images and make them available for research online through a database over the past two decades.

However budgetary constraints, staff time and expertise, and relative priority of the photos will limit how many photos will be available electronically.  For example in a municipal archive, records that help the current city staff plan and implement programs will take priority over records that are merely of interest to the public, however worthy.

Digitizing photos will often take second place to things like indexing city council minutes, planning documents, engineering records and other records used by city staff  in the course  of carrying out their work.

In smaller, local or cultural archives there’s less chance that photos will be digitized. In many cases, photocopies or reproductions may be available to view¬† in binders or files in the reference room. In other cases, you may only get a list of photos and have to fill out a request form to view them.

Continually weigh your time and priorities.

Consider the amount of time it takes to research a database, fill¬† out a request form, wait for the retrieval.¬† This could take up at least 15 minutes of your time only to result in a 2 second look at something to know it won’t help in your research.

Tracking down photos that are described in list format can be even more time-consuming. And disappointing.

Once you request and receive a picture, you may see, immediately, that it is not what you’re looking for. The image might not be exactly how it was described, or there may be several photos that are very similar – for example a series of interior shots of a lumber mill – and not yield as much information as you had hoped. Or the time period might not be right for your research.

On the other hand it could yield just the right image or information you need.

Keep in mind that some historical images only exist in negative format, some of which are glass and therefore fragile, and that panorama images can be huge and unwieldy. All of these things mean there are times when you may have to make a good case for viewing an original image. And even then your request may be refused.

Archives, Artists, British Columbia history, Canada history, Chinese Canadian history, Historical documents, Historical research, Library, Paintings, Research, Southeast Asian community in Vancouver history, Vancouver history, women's history, Writers

Beauty of artwork – in more ways than one

Vancouver historical image
Edward Roper painting of Burrard Inlet, circa 188_. Property of the City of Vancouver Archives

I can’t tell you enough how much I love looking at old paintings and photos of a place, not only for the artistic pleasure they give but, from a historical research perspective, for the detail they convey.

Take this painting of the early Vancouver waterfront by Edward Roper, for example. It shows people working Рfrom what I can tell possibly some Squamish people hauling boats onshore, a couple of Chinese men, and others at the waterfront.  It gives me a strong image from that very time, from the perspective of an astute observer.

And even thought the complete image is undoubtedly contrived, there is a lot here to feed my imagination and fuel the creative process for the novel I’m writing set in Vancouver beginning in the 1880s.

Whereas many photos of the times are of people of prominence or group shots of factory workers or picnic groups, there is a lot of historical artwork that shows everyday people doing ordinary, everyday things.

Clothing, attitude, work being carried out, tools, scenery, and more can be conveyed in a single painting that could take a long time to discern through written records or be difficult to set up in a photograph.

Yet, along with historical photos, they are a rich resource for any creative or documentary research you may want to do. They are further different from photos, however, in that an artist can add in details that might not be present or apparent from a photo.

Check your local archival repositories, art galleries, and museums for any local historical paintings they might have in their collection.¬† Even though, in some cases, the artwork itself may not be very good, drawings and paintings will give you a “snapshot” impression of a place that may be just enough for you to imagine your own creative work emanating from it.

Enjoy!