Historical novel, Historical research, Historiography, Industrial revolution, Library, Renaissance, Research, Research Tip, Victorian Era, Women, women's history

Curses Indeed!

Featuring The Encyclopedia of Swearing

Annie – my protagonist

It’s great when you’re writing and come up with just the right word or expression.

And being historically accurate makes your work more authoritative and trustworthy.

While working on my historical novel, set in 1800s Vancouver, I needed to find a few accurate expletives to come out of my protagonist, Annie’s mouth. She’s a factory girl and not shy about expressing her opinions!

I still haven’t found exactly what I’m looking for – namely – something like, “damn it” (or preferably stronger) – an expletive for her to say when something falls on her foot. Feel free to suggest something in the comments please!

I did a quick internet search and got a few ideas and then went onto our local library catalogue and found this amazing resource.

It’s called An Encyclopedia of Swearing: The Social History of Oaths, Profanity, Foul Language, and Ethnic Slurs in the English-Speaking World, by M.E. Sharpe

At the Vancouver Public Library (VPL), it’s an e-pub found by a catalogue search and available only to VPL library card holders. Call a librarian if you don’t find it in your own local library. It may be accessible differently than it is here.

I couldn’t see how to find an answer my question (the curse following the thing falling on her foot), but while scrolling around and trying out different things I tried out a search on the word “prostitute”.

Along with some historical and literary references, and bibliographic references, I got this list of words spanning the years 1100-2000.

1100whore
1200
1300strumpet, concubine, quean, common woman
1400harlot, slut, filth, mistress
1500drab, trull, mutton, cat, doxy
1600prostitute, moll, punk, doll, jade, hussy, trollop, gypsy, slattern
1700biddy, conveniency, bunter
1800fallen woman, hooker, blowen, streetwalker
1900broad, call girl, call boy, tramp, tart, lady of the night, hustler, slag
2000escort, sex worker

A few other terms in the table of contents of this encyclopedia include:

  • expletives – homosexuals 
  • ethnic slurs
  • etymology
  • piss
  • punk
  • shrew
  • soldiers and sailors slang
  • shit words
  • turd
  • twat 

and more….

There are entries for a few regional terms, including Scots, South African,and probably some more

And entries for a few historical periods including Renaissance and Victorian, and probably some more

Use the table of contents or do a search.

Just be careful if you do a search that you use the correct search field labed, “search within this publication”. Otherwise your search will bring up results from all the Gale online publications held by your library.

Another option is to use the “advanced search”

  • Enter “prostitution” as a keyword
  • Scroll down and enter the name of the publication
  • I entered “encyclopedia of swearing” and the full title was auto-filled
  • Scroll down
  • Press, search

I noticed that not every term gives a nice date-line table like the one that showed up on my search for Prostitute.


You can save your results on Google Drive, Cloud, and other platforms.


For academic works there are also options to put the citations into whatever citation protocol you’re using.

Archive Angel
Canada history, Historical research, Industrial research, Labour history, Library, Research

Strikes, wages, and the cigar-making industry

One of the most valuable resources on trades and labour issues, including strkes is the Labour Gazette, produced by the Canadian government 1900-1978.

a page from the 1901 Labour Gazette with statistical table for the Cigarmaking industry in Canada, showing wages for men/women in the different areas of production (box makers, strippers, rollers, packers, and foremen

The federal Department of Labour (now Labour and Social Development Canada). was initiated by the Conciliation Act of 1900. The department’s mandate was to prevent and settle trade disputes and to publish accurate and statistical industrial information about conditions in Canadian industry and labour.  

The department published the Labour Gazette, a monthly publication which began September 1900, following the same content and format of gazettes used in Britain and other commonwealth countries at the same time. 

Local correspondents collected data and reported monthly on a wide range of labour and industry related events and evolving trends and statistics.

The Labour Gazette contains:

  • Reports from local correspondents on industry composition (gender, wage, productivity, and more) in cities and regions of the country
  • Reports from different industries (cigar-making, coal, fishing, farming, building trades and more)
  • Government contracts
  • Stats
  • Department of Labour reports
  • Immigration reports
  • Lock-outs, strikes and other labour disputes
  • Cost of living reports
  • Lists of trade unions founded in the year of publication
  • Wage rates by industry
  • Lists of trade unions founded in the year of publication
  • Decisions on worker compensation claims
  • Relevant provincial legislation in the year of publication

It’s an immensely rich resource and can give you ideas for writing or other creative work grounded in history, or to allow you to create acccurate portrayals of working people at the time.

Each annual edition is made up of 12 bound reports with one comprehensive index at the very front.

The Vancouver Public Library has the Labour Gazette in an incomplete run spanning the years 1900-1942. They are located in the Business section of the library in compact shelving. The location can be confusing and access may require assistance from a librarian so be sure to ask for help. 

Library and Archives Canada in Ottawa has the complete run of Labour Gazettes, but not in electronic format.

Historical research, Library, Local heros, Vancouver history

Local hero – Elizabeth Walker – Author of Street Names of Vancouver

Elizabeth Walker
Image by Professor Bob McDonald
both deceased. 2019

I was filled with foreboding when I called a friend of mine tonight – a woman in her 90s who I hadn’t spoken to for many months – and her phone was out of service.

Elizabeth Walker – a pre-eminent local historian, librarian, activist, and author of the the book, Street Names of Vancouver (1999) – would not have gotten a cell phone at this stage of her life, nor engaged in any social media so hearing the recorded message tonight gave me pause.

I said a little prayer that she had moved to a seniors residence but a google search found, instead, her obituary.

I met Elizabeth while I was working at the City of Vancouver Archives in the 1990s. We shared many laughs about retrieving the South Vancouver voters’ lists almost every time she came as she checked and cross-referenced names of early settlers and voters in the higgeldy-piggeldy streets of early South Vancouver – a separate municipality until 1929.


Here’s more about Elizabeth and her rich and interesting life.

https://vancouversunandprovince.remembering.ca/obituary/elizabeth-betty-walker-1077412916


RIP Elizabeth. It was great knowing you!


Archives, Historical documents, Historical novel, Historical research, Library, Research, Research Tip, Sailing - daily life, Writers

Librarian tricks to find material on the daily life of a sailor in the 18th century

Sail was still the predominant means of propulsion until the late 1800s and the advent of steam engines and early Vancouver harbour scenes are resplendent with sailboats

I’ve been trying to pin down some details – gritty stories and actual day-in-the-life specifics of a young seaman working on a sailboat in the late 1800s – what they ate, what work they did, where they slept, what they did in the lulls and anything about pets or children onboard.

But I’d been having trouble finding much that was useful. I did keyword searches on the Vancouver Public Library (VPL) using the terms sailing and sailboat and history and “daily life” and came up with a lot of current information about how to sail, where to sail, and contemporary sailboats in general with a bit of historical information thrown in about the heyday of sailing and the advent of steamships in the late 1800s, but still not finding quite what I was looking for.

When you’re doing historical research in particular you may need to think about some older and even antiquated terms for the activity or concept you’re searching for, though I had a similar challenge trying to come up with just the right search term when carrying out research on a (current) aspect of environmental science as well.

Finding the right term is like finding the right key to the lock and is sometimes the first step in finding useful material. Try turning phrases around in your head us, brainstorming different terminology for your subject, and trying this keyword-to subject-heading research in order to come up with the right term that will bring you success.

Before Google and keywords changed the world of online searching in the late 1990s libraries catalogued material using a thesaurus to ensure that all librarians were using consistent terms for classifying books and related material in different formats.

This meant that when terminology migrated (from ecology to envirormentalism for example) related material would still fall under the same classification heading and researchers wouldn’t have to look up multiple terms for the same thing.

Subject headings originate in the classification thesaurus used by libraries (usually Dewey or Library of Congress) and follow a rigid format as you’ll see from my research example, below.

But now, when you’re carrying out research, you can use a combination of keyword searching and the more traditional subject classification searching to pinpoint more specific or obscure information. The subject classification will encompass books and other resources that use terms you might not think of.

For example in my research on the daily life and conditions of sailors in the 19th century I did the following keyword searches.

sailing

and

sailing history

I then chose a book from my results and scrolled down to find the library subject headings under which it was classified. On the Vancouver Public Library site, subject headings appear on the far right, a little down from the book title, and are hyperlinked.

Using the keyword “Sailing” gave the Subject heading of “Sailing”

Using the keywords “Sailing history” gave the Subject heading of “Sailing ships pictorial works”

So I clicked on “Sailing ships pictorial works” to see what other books have been put into that classification, but they were mostly about yaching and racing, neither of which I was interested in.

So I tried another tack (pardon the pun)!

Using the keywords “sailing daily life” – gave me no results

and

Using the keyword “sailors – pictorial works” brought up books with photos of sailors, a few novels, and some analysis of gender issues among sailors.

Finally I remembered the word ‘seafaring” and once I entered that term I hit paydirt because suddenly there was a plethora of books on the daily life of a sailor aboard a sailing ship in the 1800s, from the work they carried out in stormy weather, in port, and while in the calm waters, the doldrums of southern South America, near the Magellan Strait, to the fo’cs’le where they lived and slept, to the food they ate.

So if you aren’t finding the material you need, try thos little librarian trick of starting with keywords and then looking at subject headings of books that come up in the results that yield other sources on the subject you’re looking for.

Of course you can always ask a librarian for help. They will probe you for specifics and relevant terminology in this same way as I’ve just explained, but it’s always heavenly to have someone else to work on it with.

Don’t resort to being a mere mortal and thinking you can do everything yourself because it will save you a lot of time and frustration to use the professionals who know these things and more, so well.

All hands on deck! 🙂

Archives, Copyright, Historical documents, Historical research, Library, Photos, Preservation, Research, Writers

Historical Photo research in archives

Many archives are now working to digitize collections of their photos to make access easier for researchers to do preliminary research from their home or office, and to minimize the handling of originals.

To track down digital images, start your research in the appropriate archive for your location or subject (municipal/provincial/federal OR cultural/industrial/artistic), and see if they have a photo database you can search. 

Every database will be slightly different but generally, you can enter date parameters, location, and  photographer information, plus a subject you think will be appropriate to carry out your search.

But not all of these databases are user-friendly so write or phone the archives and ask for step-by-step instuctions or help in using them.

Don’t feel embarrassed or shy about asking for help.

Archivists know that their databases can be challenging to use and are usually more than willing to help you navigate and find something you’re looking for. 

They want you to succeed! 

Bear in mind that the images you see may only be in a thumb-nail version, or they may be bigger, but regardless, your use of them will generally be limited to research purposes only unless and until you’ve made arrangements with the archives that holds the copyright to that photo.

Considerations of fair use, copyright, and costs for various kinds of use including replication in books or used for a commercial purpose such as a poster, t-shirt, mug, or marketing material.